Beijing Morning News:

  Focus on special reports


  Who Encountered Employment Discrimination (I)


  A new round of job-hunting war for graduates in 2007 has begun. According to a survey, in recent years, over 70% of job seekers have encountered employment discrimination. Among the complaints of many job seekers, these topics about employment discrimination have also become hot spots in media reports. A few days ago, the reporter visited some job fairs, collected the most common types of discrimination "samples" in the current job market, and explored the reasons with the parties and the personnel responsible for recruitment in related enterprises.


  Mainstream discrimination


  ? Sexism "The position of female employees will be healthy with children"


  Xiao He is a senior girl in a university in Beijing. Since October last year, she has been running around all kinds of job fairs and experienced all kinds of hardships in the process of job hunting. "Many units clearly say that they only want boys," Xiao He said angrily. "I don’t understand why many units don’t consider girls when recruiting clerks. Some government agencies actually claim that recruiting civil servants is limited to men."


  In fact, more units do not put gender requirements on the bright side, but push girls out first in the process of eliminating competitors. Even women who are already employed are still "restricted". Ms. Lin is the manager of an advertising company in Beijing. Not long ago, she just went to work after taking maternity leave, and the unit informed her that she had been demoted to ordinary employees.


  Explanations of the recruiting unit:


  Enterprises with many female employees have high costs.


  Regarding the standard of "male priority", the manager of the human resources department of a private enterprise explained it this way: "For our small enterprises, it will take two or three years to recruit a female employee, and she will have to take maternity leave and dismiss her, which violates the Labor Law; Keep it, it is also a big burden for enterprises, and employers have to provide wages according to law. In addition, female employees with children will definitely invest more energy than male employees in taking care of children and families. From the perspective of enterprise management, especially enterprise efficiency, enterprises with more female employees will pay more than those with more male employees. The cost is high, so now we simply don’t recruit women. "


  Response of the parties:


  Enterprises are evading the Labor Law.


  Ms. Lin believes that she just went to work, and the unit downgraded herself without evaluating her work. This is simply subjective judgment, and it is also a disguised form of forcing female employees on maternity leave to resign. "This not only dismissed female employees, but also did not violate the Labor Law. If women want to have children, enterprises will reject women, so who will bear the responsibility of human reproduction? "


  Age discriminates against the 35-year-old "retirement" with China characteristics.


  Mr. Wu, 48 years old, came back from the United States to visit relatives during Christmas, and accidentally found that domestic job advertisements all required: men under 35 years old and women under 26 years old … He was shocked: at my age, I couldn’t find a job when I returned to China. As a system engineer, he just jumped from a computer company to an electrical appliance manufacturer in the United States.


  The reporter found that limiting the age requirement of recruits to under 35 is a key requirement that can be seen in almost all job fairs or job advertisements. When I opened a recruitment magazine in December last year, in the 12th edition of Job Search World, among only 27 job advertisements, seven words "under 35 years old", one "under 40 years old", one "under 30 years old" and two "under 25 years old" appeared. The seven "under 35 years old" positions are refrigeration equipment salesman, driver, builder, accountant, cashier and foreign trade merchandiser.


  Explanations of the recruiting unit:


  Young people are willing to do a good job.


  Companies that recruit foreign trade merchandisers say that foreign trade work is hard, and I’m afraid it’s difficult to be competent over middle age. Companies that recruit salesmen think that salesmen often need to travel, and younger ones may be more suitable. An electronics company that recruits an expatriate assistant under the age of 25 said that the local manager is not old enough to find a young assistant.


  Response of the parties:


  Young people are in good health and low cost.


  Mr. Wu believes that the real reason is that young workers are obedient and have better physical strength, and it is not easy to get sick after working overtime for a long time, saving costs for the unit. "Although it is a market economy now, old-age medical care is a social co-ordination. If employees are not sick, the unit does not need to continue to pay wages during their illness."


  Health discrimination liver disease has evolved into a "social disease"


  Mr. Yang graduated from a university majoring in civil engineering in 2005. On December 27, 2004, on the eve of graduation, he signed an employment agreement for college graduates with an electrification survey and design institute in Tianjin and the university. On July 10, 2005, Yang and several classmates reported to the unit as scheduled. On August 3, when he participated in the unified physical examination of the unit, he was found to be carrying hepatitis B virus (hepatitis B small sanyang).


  Subsequently, Yang was arranged to go to Tianjin Infectious Disease Hospital for reexamination. The results showed that his index was less than 1000, which was normal and his liver function was normal. However, the design institute still refused to sign a labor contract with Yang on the grounds of the result of hepatitis B, unilaterally dissolved the employment agreement signed by the three parties and returned Yang’s personnel file to the school. At present, Mr. Yang has taken this design and research institute to court.


  Explanations of the recruiting unit:


  It is not illegal for state-owned enterprises to refuse "person B"


  Ms. Wang, the head of the human resources department of the Design and Research Institute, told reporters that the unit is a state-owned enterprise, and the nature of work determines that it is often necessary to travel collectively, eat and live together, and other employees are very disgusted with infectious patients such as hepatitis B. Therefore, the unit stated in the agreement signed with the graduates that if the medical examination encounters a serious illness that is not suitable for the nature of the work, the graduates will be returned. Even if Mr. Yang is only a carrier of hepatitis B virus, the staff of the institute is not a national civil servant, and the dissolution of the agreement does not violate state regulations.


  Response of the parties:


  Who gives 120 million "B" a job?


  In response to the explanation of the recruiting unit, Mr. Yang consulted legal experts and learned that people infected with hepatitis B virus who are not contagious can be employed. According to the National Viral Hepatitis Prevention and Control Program, hepatitis B virus carriers can work as usual, except that they can’t donate blood and work as direct food and nurses. The phenomenon of hepatitis B discrimination is in violation of China’s Law on the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases. "At present, there are as many as 120 million hepatitis B virus carriers in China, that is to say, one in every 10 people. Can’t so many people give jobs?"


Height and appearance discriminate against girls, and they are ridiculed as "Jingba"


  Liu, a master of finance in a famous university, is 1.60 meters tall. Although he is excellent in character and scholarship, his height has become a threshold that he can’t cross when applying for a job. His job intention is to go to the bank. After handing in his resume, the other party showed great interest in him. But when the appointment is made, the other party will not be happy when he sees his height. Often, after a few minutes of talking, the other party bluntly said: the unit has requirements that the height of men should not be less than 1.70 meters, otherwise the unit will not accept it.


  Miss Guo, who studies history, has not found an ideal job since she graduated from college last year. The reason is that many employers think that her skin color is dark and her appearance does not meet the standards of employment. "A company wanted to hire me as a secretary, but there was no news after the interview. Afterwards, other students told me that the boss actually laughed at me in front of many people for my big eyes and flat nose, and I looked like’ Jingba’. "


  Explanations of the recruiting unit:


  Ugly people have to row back when they are logistics.


  The person in charge of the personnel department of a casual wear franchise company who has certain requirements on appearance said: Our service industry needs to face customers, so the appearance of employees is not required to be particularly beautiful, at least it should be pleasing to the eye. For applicants with obvious defects in appearance, we will basically eliminate them when they submit their resumes. We don’t discriminate against them just because they don’t meet the requirements of the company. If you want to recruit warehouse keepers, drivers, logistics, etc., you can still consider it, but only if there are no better candidates than them.


  Response of the parties:


  A master’s degree is not as tall as a man.


  After repeatedly hitting the wall, Liu told reporters helplessly: "The height is given by my parents, and I have no ability to change it? Besides, I got my master’s degree through hard work, but can’t I change the influence of my height? Moreover, bank work is not playing basketball. Why are there strict requirements for height? "


  Nonmainstream discrimination


  Zodiac name discrimination


  The waiter’s surname is "compensation" for business.


  Xiao Wang, a graduate student from the School of Finance and Economics of the National People’s Congress who is about to graduate, just applied for a job in a private enterprise. Although he did well in rough selection, written examination and interview, he did not receive the employment notice. My sister, who also works in this company, told Xiao Wang that the boss was very satisfied with her work ability, interview performance and improvisation. The only dissatisfaction was her "Zodiac". "The boss said that you are a chicken and he is a rabbit, and the Zodiac is offensive."


  Liu Meng, 35, is an old driver with more than ten years’ driving experience. At the end of October, 2006, he went to an enterprise to apply for the position of driver. At that time, Liu Meng, who had advantages in work experience and driving skills, was defeated. The recruiter of the company said that according to the investigation, drivers named "Chong" and "Meng" are impatient and prone to accidents while driving, so the company decided not to hire him.


  In the interview, the reporter learned that in addition to not hiring drivers with the words "Chong" and "Meng" in their names, some businesses are also reluctant to hire waiters with the words "Huang", "Pei" and "Guang" in their names, thinking that such names will affect business.


  Regional discrimination


  "Northeasters are impulsive and love to make trouble"


  Referring to the "discrimination" encountered in the application, Xiao Lu, a student of Beijing University of Technology who is about to graduate, was angry. Once he applied for a semi-research organization, the recruiter asked him about his major and academic performance with great interest at first, but as soon as he heard his answer in the newspaper "Born in Henan", he immediately said, "Oh, Henan people." Then he ended the question and told him to go back and wait for the notice, but there was no news.


  On December 16th, 2006, the reporter found that some units wrote "No Northeastern" in black and white on the recruitment booth. When asked by the reporter, the staff said without looking up, "We feel that Northeasters are impulsive and love to make trouble, so they are not prepared to take it." There is even a unit that simply declares that it doesn’t want Beijingers. The reason is that Beijingers are too lazy and have the legacy of the Eight Banners, and they always exaggerate.


  Alcohol discrimination


  "A meal can’t be less than half a catty of white wine"


  Pony, a marketing major at Beijing Technology and Business University, suffered a "drinking discrimination". Last month, he went to apply for a salesperson with two classmates. After the recruiter asked a simple personal situation, he asked them, "Can you drink?" How about the amount of alcohol? " As soon as he heard that Pony couldn’t drink, he was asked to go back first, leaving two students who claimed to be "good drinkers" to see the boss.


  In the interview, the reporter found that in fact, when many units recruit male employees, the amount of alcohol consumption has become the standard for leaders to judge whether employees are "real". Pony learned from the two classmates afterwards that the boss believed that it was essential for sales people to drink alcohol, so as to mingle with customers at the dinner table. "Not only can you drink, but you can also drink at least half a catty of white wine at a meal. It is best to put others down and be fine."


  Academic discrimination


  Check the "three generations" of doctoral degrees in prestigious schools


  Xiao Zhang, a Ph.D. student in Peking University, went to a university in Jilin Province to apply for a job. At first, the university was very interested in him. After several contacts, I gradually found out the bottom of Xiao Zhang. When I checked his original education, I found that this doctoral graduate was not a prestigious school when he was an undergraduate, so I turned him away. "I didn’t expect to check the’ three generations’ for academic qualifications!" Xiao Zhang was so angry that he even called it "absurd".


  According to the reporter’s understanding, many units will adopt this method of "checking three generations" when interviewing doctoral and master graduates to trace their undergraduate degrees. Once the undergraduate university does not enter the "211" project, no matter whether you are a master or a doctor, even people with diplomas will be discounted. Some employers believe that there are too many college graduates now, so it is natural for them to "choose the best among the best".


  News link


  Employment discrimination case


  Promote the anti-discrimination process


  The first case of hepatitis B in China


  In June, 2003, Zhang Xianzhu, a native of Wuhu, Anhui Province, signed up for the Anhui Provincial Civil Service Examination in Wuhu Personnel Bureau. After written examination and interview, his comprehensive score ranked first among the 30 candidates who applied for the position, and he entered the medical examination procedure according to the regulations. On September 17, 2003, the physical examination report showed that he was a patient with hepatitis B, and Zhang Xianzhu was not admitted because the medical examination conclusion was unqualified. On November 10, 2003, Zhang Xianzhu filed an administrative lawsuit with the court on the grounds that the defendant Wuhu Personnel Bureau deprived him of his qualification as a national civil servant and violated his legal rights. Wuhu Xinwu District People’s Court ruled in the first instance that the defendant Wuhu Personnel Bureau made a specific administrative act in the process of recruiting Anhui national civil servants in 2003, that is, the main evidence for canceling the plaintiff Zhang Xianzhu’s qualification to enter the assessment procedure was insufficient, and the legal costs of 100 yuan were borne by the defendant. However, the court also held that the recruitment of civil servants last year had ended, and the position that the plaintiff applied for had been replaced by others. Therefore, the plaintiff’s request to be hired to the corresponding position was not supported.


  Comments: This case has aroused social concern about the employment of 120 million hepatitis B patients nationwide. Subsequently, Guangdong, Sichuan, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang successively abolished the restrictive regulation that "HBV carriers cannot become civil servants" in the recruitment of civil servants. In 2005, the Ministry of Personnel and the Ministry of Health announced the formal implementation of "General Standards for Civil Servants’ Employment and Physical Examination (Trial)", which clearly stipulated for the first time that "HBV carriers can become civil servants".


  The first case of constitutional equality in China


  On January 7, 2002, Sichuan UniversityKevin Jiang, a 1998 student of the Law School, sued the Chengdu Branch of the People’s Bank of China on the grounds that the bank’s recruitment restrictions on height violated the constitutional provision that "all citizens in People’s Republic of China (PRC) are equal before the law" and violated its qualification for holding public office in state organs. This case is called "the first case of constitutional equality in China". On May 21, 2002, the Wuhou District People’s Court of Chengdu made a first-instance judgment on the case of "Kevin Jiang v. Administrative Litigation of Recruiting Clerk of Chengdu Branch of the People’s Bank of China", and ruled that the plaintiff Kevin Jiang’s lawsuit was rejected. After the judgment of the first instance, the plaintiff Kevin Jiang did not appeal.


  Comments: This case is the first time that the applicant has put the issue of discrimination in the recruitment process of state organs before the Chinese people. The principle of "People’s Republic of China (PRC) citizens are equal before the law" in the Constitution has aroused widespread social concern and made more people realize that it is necessary to rely on the law to carry out anti-employment discrimination.


  Morning News reporter Zhao Wangyue


  -This edition of the article Morning News reporter Maddox Zhao Wangyue

On the 19th, Dongge Town, Wenchang will hold a volleyball match. These teams have their own characteristics →


Original title: A volleyball match will be held in Dongge Town, Wenchang on the 19th. These team names have their own characteristics →

New Hainan Client, Nanhai Net February 18 news (Reporter Wu Yuewen) During the Spring Festival, in 2024, the "Spring 99 Cup" Hainan (Wenchang) Village Volleyball Spring Festival was staged wonderfully, attracting many citizens and tourists to the scene to watch. In order to enrich the cultural life of the masses and create a good atmosphere for national fitness, on February 19th, the "Anti-drug Cup" nine-a-side men’s volleyball tournament in Dongge Town, Wenchang City will be held in the volleyball court of Xiafu School in Dongge Town and the volleyball court of Dongge Town Government.

Data Map: "See you again at the stadium" 2023 Dongge Town Township Volleyball Invitational Tournament in Wenchang City.

The reporter learned that the competition was jointly organized by the village neighborhood committees of Dongge Town and the relevant departments and units of the town. There were 17 teams including Dongge Juxizai Rice Team, Liangfeng Shrimp Team, Baofang Village Wenchang Chicken Team, Qunjian Sandworm Team, Fengshan Village Passion Fruit Team, Xiafu Black Goat Team and Tianlun Tilapia Team. These team names are very distinctive, highlighting the famous "specialties" in Dongge Town, Wenchang City.

Data Map: "See you again at the stadium" 2023 Dongge Town Township Volleyball Invitational Tournament in Wenchang City.

Data Map: "See you again at the stadium" 2023 Dongge Town Township Volleyball Invitational Tournament in Wenchang City.

The 9-a-side volleyball tournament will be held at 9: 00 am on February 19th at Dongge Town Government Volleyball Field. It is expected that the champion and runner-up will be decided at 10: 00 that night. Subsequently, an award ceremony was held, in which the first prize was 5880 yuan, the second prize was 4880 yuan, the third prize was 4880 yuan, and the third prize was 3880 yuan.

(Wu Yuewen)

Like it | Every year, a group of high-speed trains will be opened to traffic, and more than 300 top experts are planning Xiong’ an … The National Development and Reform Commission revealed a wave of

  Cctv newsAt 3 o’clock this afternoon, the press center of the 19th National Congress held the fourth press conference. He Lifeng, Party Secretary and Director of the National Development and Reform Commission, Zhang Yong, Deputy Director, and Ning Ji Zhe, Deputy Director, answered reporters’ questions on the hot issues of China’s economic development.

  We sorted out the dry goods of this press conference from three aspects, and let’s take a look at what changes have taken place in our lives in the past five years and what kind of life we will have in the future.

  Look at the data, look at the quality and look at the benefits: China’s economy is stable, steady and positive.

  He Lifeng said that in the past five years, China’s economy has developed in a sustained and healthy way, and it has maintained a development trend of steady progress and steady progress. Major economic indicators, prices, employment, and poverty alleviation have remained stable, and significant progress has been made in promoting institutional reform, "three to one, one reduction and one supplement", and promoting economic transformation and upgrading. Specifically:

  It is estimated that the expected growth target of about 6.5% for the whole year will be successfully achieved and better results will be achieved. The total economic output will exceed 80 trillion yuan by the end of this year.

  The number of new jobs in cities and towns nationwide has remained above 13 million for four consecutive years.

  More than 55 million people have been lifted out of poverty in four years, and more than 10 million people will be reduced this year. The incidence of poverty has dropped to 4.5% at the end of 2016, and it is expected to drop below 4% by the end of this year.

  "Three to one, one drop and one supplement" has achieved good results. So far, the production capacity of backward steel has exceeded 110 million tons, the production capacity of backward coal has exceeded 400 million tons, and the re-employment of more than 1.1 million people has been solved simultaneously.

  According to some authoritative media reports in the world, there are now more than 90 "unicorn" enterprises in science and technology (described as start-ups with good development prospects), accounting for about one-third of the world. Compared with some big countries with the most "unicorn" enterprises, we are only a few less. This fully shows that China’s new technology industries and technology enterprises are developing vigorously. In 2016, the contribution rate of China’s scientific and technological progress reached 56.2%, and the expenditure on research and experimental development reached 1.55 trillion yuan.

  See the problem: private investment is weak? The tide of foreign capital withdrawal? What should we do?

  Weak private investment? Manufacturing and real estate are really weak now.

  Zhang Yong, deputy director of the National Development and Reform Commission, said:

  The slowdown of private investment has something to do with the slowdown of investment in the whole society, and it also has some characteristics of its own. Because the areas where private investment is concentrated are mainly manufacturing and real estate. Manufacturing involves transformation and upgrading, and real estate involves destocking. These two industries are relatively weak now.

  However, on the whole, private investment has maintained a steady and sustained growth trend. From January to September this year, private investment increased by 6%, 3.5 percentage points faster than last year.

  In view of the weak private investment, in the future, we should further lower the threshold through decentralization, especially making a negative list to make the market more transparent and give private enterprises greater decision-making power.

  In addition, efforts are being made to build a government information platform, especially a credit system, to protect the legitimate rights and interests of private enterprises. At the same time, the State Council issued a special document to stimulate the vitality of private investment and further guide private investment to invest in these areas with long industrial chain and good growth prospects.

  The management system of pre-entry national treatment plus negative list will be fully implemented for foreign investment

  In response to the voice of the wave of foreign capital withdrawal in the society, Ning Ji Zhe, deputy director of the National Development and Reform Commission, said that in recent years, China has been in the forefront of attracting foreign capital in the world. In order to solve some difficulties faced by foreign-funded enterprises in their development, the next step will be to continue to improve the business environment, fully implement the management system of national treatment plus negative list before entry, and greatly relax market access.

  In terms of fair competition, foreign-funded enterprises should also be given national treatment after their entry. All enterprises registered in China are treated equally and equally.

  In terms of investment facilitation, we adhere to the new mode of foreign investment management based on filing system. At present, more than 96% of foreign investment is subject to localized filing management. Some places are still exploring deepening reforms and further improving the convenience of investment as a whole.

  Look at the future

  The coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei has exceeded expectations.

  In terms of transportation, a number of "broken roads" and a number of "bottleneck roads" have been opened, which add up to more than 800 kilometers.

  In terms of industrial upgrading and transfer, Beijing has transferred a number of non-capital but relatively high-quality enterprise projects to Tianjin and Hebei.

  Great progress has been made in ecological and environmental protection, and the greening around Beijing has been greatly strengthened. Great practical results have been achieved in controlling pollution such as burning loose coal and launching the "blue sky defense war";

  People’s livelihood, including education, medical care, health and so on, has made great progress.

  By the end of this year, Beijing municipal authorities and municipal administrative departments will take the lead in starting the relocation.

  The sub-center of Beijing City is mainly located in Tongzhou, and the master plan of Tongzhou is in full swing to re-connect with the master plan of Beijing City. As a sub-center of Beijing City, the construction of this phase mainly focuses on the construction of centralized office areas of administrative institutions. After several years of efforts, the main part has been basically completed. According to the plan, by the end of this year, Beijing-level major organs and some municipal administrative departments will take the lead in starting the relocation.

  More than 300 top experts at home and abroad are doing the overall planning of xiong’an new area.

  In recent months, the planning and construction of xiong’an new area has made positive and great progress. More than 300 top experts from home and abroad and 12 teams were organized to design the overall planning of xiong’an new area and the planning of the start-up area and the start-up area according to the world vision, international standards, China characteristics and the general requirements of high-point positioning. This plan has entered the final stage of tackling key problems.

   The first draft of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area planning is being solicited for comments.

  Regarding Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area’s national strategy, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) is taking the lead in speeding up the preparation of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area’s plan, which will provide a blueprint for the future construction of Greater Bay Area. At present, the first draft has been formed, and opinions are being solicited.

  The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge will strive to be basically open to traffic by the end of this year. At the same time, relevant policies are being studied to facilitate the convenience of people, funds and other market liquidity factors, such as customs clearance policies.

  In the future, a number of high-speed trains will be opened to traffic every year.

  In promoting the development of high-speed rail, He Lifeng said that the National Development and Reform Commission, together with the Ministry of Communications and the Railway Corporation, is deeply studying specific policies. It is predicted that there will be a number of high-speed rails under construction every year in the future, and a number of high-speed rails will be opened to traffic every year to better meet and serve the objective needs of people’s travel.

In 2024, the automobile market will face a growth boom: new energy vehicles will become new power, and the export end and intelligent driving will be driven by two wheels.

According to the recent institutional research report, summarize the investment points of related industries for your reference:

Automobile industryIn the first three quarters of 2023, the central and local governments issued a new round of policy combination boxing, such as new energy going to the countryside and automobile consumption and shopping festival activities, to further enhance market activity, promote the sustained release of potential purchasing power, and drive the order growth of the upstream parts industry. The domestic macro-economy has picked up moderately, and the logistics industry has stabilized and rebounded to drive the growth of truck sales. Under the favorable background of many parties,Automobile industryIn the first three quarters of 2023, the prosperity continued to pick up, and it is expected to continue until 2024.

Automobile exit endThe performance is bright, and the high growth tone of the new energy industry remains unchanged. Relying on the advantages of domestic automobile industry chain and the brand strength of continuous improvement,Automobile industryOutstanding performance at the export end is expected to become a new round of growth points. At present, the domestic economy is picking up moderately, the export end has entered the stage of heavy volume, and the new energy industry is booming. It is estimated that the automobile sales volume will reach 29.88 million in 2024, an increase of about 3% year-on-year. The sales volume of new energy vehicles was about 11.5 million, up about 25% year-on-year.

The second half of the electric car has arrived., intelligent network development into the fast lane. Since 2023, relevant policies for intelligent networked vehicles have been frequent, which is expected to catalyze the research and development and landing process of domestic high-level intelligent driving. Intelligent driving covers multi-field collaboration, and the industrial chain has ushered in rapid development. With the pilot work of L3 and L4 automatic driving gradually carried out in China, Tesla FSD with advanced intelligent assisted driving is expected to accelerate its entry into the China market.

HuaweiEmpowering the intelligent development of automobiles, the supporting industrial chain may usher in a revaluation. Huawei relies on the leading technology and channel advantages accumulated in the ICT and consumer electronics fields for many years to empowerAutomobile industryThe field of smart travel. The sales volume of Wenjie series is hot, reflecting consumers’ recognition of Huawei’s added value, and Huawei’s automobile related supporting industrial chain may usher in a revaluation.

capital proposals: It is suggested to pay attention to the main engine plants with bright performance at the export end of new energy.

Hexun self-selected stock writer

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China Youth Daily is concerned about how to treat the "usefulness" and "uselessness" of culture.

For drinking tea, it is obvious that ordinary white porcelain bowls can meet the demand, but why do we prefer porcelain tea set with fine workmanship? When writing, the arm rest is used to prevent the arm from being stained with ink. Obviously, as long as it has the function of putting the arm, why do we pay attention to its material and the carving on it? When we are moved by the beautiful artistic conception of an ancient poem, when we are fascinated by the exquisiteness and elegance of a handicraft, what do we get from it? What can those humanistic details and artistic values bring to our lives? Or, is culture "useful" or "useless" to our life?

The "uselessness" of culture is also "great use"

In the dialogue session hosted by Bai Yansong at the 15th Cultural China Forum, Pan Lusheng, chairman of China Folk Writers Association, pointed out that "useful" means "practical" and "useless" means aesthetic "useless". Material and spiritual use and life use are both useful and practical, while useless is also useful and even useful.

Pan Lusheng introduced that in Lin ‘an City in the Southern Song Dynasty, the palace culture, the literati culture and the street culture were integrated, which formed the idea of "craft for practical use", and also created a life style of unity of practicality and aesthetics in the Southern Song Dynasty. During this period, the weaving technology was superb, and the fabrics made were dense and light as cicada’s wings. Not only were there various types of yarn, Luo, Qi and Ling, but the silk reeling and embroidery techniques were also superb. The gardens in the Southern Song Dynasty are like three-dimensional landscape paintings with pavilions and winding paths, which contain the spiritual complex and aesthetic artistic conception of literati. From the clay figurines of children in the Song Dynasty in Zhenjiang Museum, to the Children’s Plays in the City in Taipei Palace Museum, from the white porcelain children’s pillows in Dingyao in the Palace Museum, to Song Jin’s Paintings of the Hundred Immortals in Cleveland Art Museum in the United States, all of them reflect the aesthetics and interest of life in which humanities and art are combined with street life.

In contrast, in today’s fast-paced diet and fragmented culture, modern people no longer seem to have an attitude of attaching importance to life aesthetics, and traditional crafts no longer pursue use value. In this context, should we learn from the ancients and return to the "elegant life" way of the Southern Song Dynasty?

"The handicraft tradition of the Southern Song Dynasty is historical and contemporary, which runs through the traditional Chinese aesthetic spirit, lifestyle and cultural taste." Pan Lusheng said. Therefore, he proposed to develop a new economy of Song rhyme culture, take people’s life needs as the guide, enhance cultural life experience, and study how elegant lifestyle can be integrated into today’s life, so that people can gain a sense of cultural identity.

Pan Lusheng believes that, on the one hand, by reviving traditional crafts, we can explore how to better inherit and utilize traditional craft and cultural resources at present, inject the culture of Xixiang into education and cultural communication, and serve people’s spiritual and cultural life. On the other hand, through the development of cultural industry with cross-industry barriers, traditional craft culture can be transformed into the resources of contemporary Song Yun cultural industry, creating higher economic value, thus better serving people’s material and cultural needs.

"Cultural pension" is worth looking forward to.

On the aesthetic level of life, the "usefulness" and "uselessness" of culture may be a philosophical proposition, but in the medical field, the "usefulness" of culture is indispensable. According to Zheng Xiaoying, academician of the Academy of Sciences of developing countries and director of the Peking University Population Research Institute, culture is even more "useful" than science and technology.

Zheng Xiaoying said, "Everyone’s ultimate wish is to grow old healthily and say goodbye to the world happily. This is by no means a problem that can be solved by relying solely on science and technology or medical means, but a realm that must be achieved through the combination of culture, art and technology. In this sense, the infiltration of culture is more important than the development of science and technology. "Zheng Xiaoying believes that" medical art education should be integrated into medical education so that every doctor can accumulate deeper artistic accomplishment and cultural heritage. "

Zheng Xiaoying pointed out that cultural blessing is also needed to deal with the problem of population aging. She introduced that with the intensification of the aging process, the life expectancy of China’s population is also increasing rapidly. However, most of the increased life expectancy is unhealthy, that is, life expectancy with disabilities. Among the disabled people in China, 53% are elderly people. To solve the problems of these elderly disabled people, we need the support of science and technology, but more importantly, we need the support of culture. "Let them be happy and enjoy the benefits brought about by the reform and opening up to the maximum. This is not a problem that can be solved by a simple assistive device."

At the same time, Zheng Xiaoying emphasized the concept of "cultural support for the aged", which is a way to support the aged on the premise that the material needs of the elderly are basically guaranteed, on the basis of meeting spiritual needs, on the basis of communicating emotions, exchanging ideas and having a healthy body and mind, and on the purpose of publicizing individuality, advocating independence and enjoying the spirit of happiness and pleasure. "Cultural pension meets the spiritual needs of the elderly. For the elderly without children, this pension model is particularly important." Zheng Xiaoying said.

How to realize the mutual integration of science and technology and humanities

Undoubtedly, the integration of culture, art and technology can make people’s lives better. So, as an individual, how should we start from ourselves and realize the integration of technology and humanities? This is also a question that Wang Yuming, an academician of China Academy of Engineering and an expert in fluid sealing engineering technology, is often asked.

Wang Yuming laughed and called himself a "science man". "However, although my main business is mechanical engineering, I am not" mechanical "culturally. He is a student of Mr. Ye Jiaying, a consultant of the Chinese Poetry Society, the director of the Poetry Working Committee of colleges and universities, and the president of the Tsinghua University Lotus Pond Poetry Society. It can be said that he is a person who perfectly balances "poetry and distance".

When answering the question "how to realize the mutual integration of science and technology and humanities", Wang Yuming believes that in terms of values, science and technology and humanities and arts are both pursuing truth, goodness and beauty, and they are essentially interlinked; In the mode of thinking, both of them need logical thinking and inspiration epiphany thinking, which can promote each other. The same is true of many masters of science and technology (such as Einstein, Yang Zhenning, Qiu Chengtong, Gu Yuxiu, Qian Xuesen, etc.). However, the most important thing is to have a "pure heart" in both scientific research and literary creation.

On the "Use" of China Culture from the Outside

The Chinese culture has a long history, and the "useful" culture not only created the fashion life of the ancients, but also injected spiritual strength into solving modern social problems, and also brought about an impact on the civilized development of neighboring countries.

In the dialogue session, Cheng Yonghua, former Japanese ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary to People’s Republic of China (PRC) and executive vice president of China-Japan Friendship Association, introduced the "use" of Japanese culture to neighboring countries. He said that China’s culture had a profound influence on the Korean Peninsula, Viet Nam and Japan. Take Japan as an example. The Sui, Tang and Song Dynasties were the historical peaks of Sino-Japanese cultural exchanges. During this period, ancient Japan sent 19 groups of envoys to China to study, with a maximum of 600 people at a time. In addition to sending envoys, a large number of international students also came to China from ancient Japan. Many of them stayed for many years, and some even stayed in China to work as officials in Chang ‘an until they died and were buried in Chang ‘an. In 645 AD, the ancient Japanese carried out the "Dahua Innovation" movement, abolished the monopoly regime system in big noble, and established an ancient centralized state with reference to the rules and regulations of the Tang Dynasty in China. During the Song Dynasty, more and more Japanese people came to China to study. Jian Zhen, a monk in the Tang Dynasty, traveled eastward to preach the precepts to Japan and was honored as the ancestor of Japanese Buddhist legalists. The Tang Zhaoti Temple complex built by him and his disciples in Nara, Japan, embodies the architectural characteristics of the Tang Dynasty and is the largest and most beautiful building in Japan’s existing Tianping era. Japanese characters are also born out of Chinese characters. At first, there were only languages but no characters in Japan. In asuka period, Buddhist classics introduced into Japan along with Buddhism made Chinese characters penetrate into Japanese life. The first Chinese characters were used by ancient Japanese as phonography, but they were troublesome in the process of use, so heian period invented katakana and hiragana with reference to the radicals and cursive scripts of Chinese characters. In addition, the present Japanese court music-gagaku,It is also music from the Tang Dynasty in China.

Cheng Yonghua said that Sino-Japanese exchanges have a history of 2,000 years. Today, Japanese young people are still attracted by China’s rapid economic development and technological innovation, and feel that "they should go to China to see more and communicate more".

Whether it is "practical" or "useless", the China culture of the same strain needs and deserves to be passed down and carried forward by contemporary people. As Pan Lusheng said, culture is a nation’s overall lifestyle and value system. If the ancients’ fashion is integrated into contemporary life, we may be able to create a pioneer culture with temperature, connotation and taste in the new era.

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